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EARLY CHISHTI SUFIS AND STATE IN INDIA: A CRITICAL STUDY

    1 Author(s):  DR.MOHAMMAD SHAKIL AKHTAR

Vol -  5, Issue- 4 ,         Page(s) : 5 - 15  (2014 ) DOI : https://doi.org/10.32804/BBSSES

Abstract

इस्लामी रहस्यवाद में चिष्ती सिलसिला की स्थापना 930 ई0 में हेरात के निकट एक छोटे से नगर चिष्त में हुआ था।इसके संस्थापक अबु इसहाक षामी ने चिष्त में पहले-पहल सुफीवाद का प्रचार किया।भारत में इस सिलसिला के संस्थापक ख्वाजा मुइनूददीन चिष्ती थे।उनका जन्म 5536.A.H/1141 A.D में सिजिस्तान में हुआ था और मंगोेल आकमण के परिणामस्वरूप वह भारत की ओर प्रस्थान किए।कुछ दिन लाहौर में षेख अलहजवरी के मज़ार पर प्राथना करने के पष्चात दिल्ली की ओर अग्रसर हुए।फिर दिल्ली से अजमेर की ओर जिसे उनहोंने चिष्ती सिलसिला के षिक्षा और कार्य का केन्द्र बनाया।

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1.No earlier writer has given date of birth,Shaikh Abdul Haq informs us that he died in 633A.H./1236 A.D ,Akhbarul Akhyar,p.22, Jamali says he was died at the age of 97(siyar-ul-Arifin) thus calculated his date of birth is 536A.H./1141A.D.
2.  S.A.A. Rizvi, ‘A History of Sufism in India’, p.123
3. Amir Khurd, ‘Siyar-ul-Auliya’, p.363.
4. Imam Ghazali, ‘Ihya-ul-ulum-ul-Din’, chapt.IVth.
5. Ibid.
6. Al Hajwuri, ‘Kashf-ul-Mahjub’, p.93.
7. Amir Khurd, op.cit. Pp.34-35.
 8.  Imam Ghazali, op.cit.Chapt.IVth.
9. Amir Hasan Sijzi, ‘Fawaid-ul-Fawad’, p.181.                                                                      10 .K. A. Nizami, Some Aspects of Religion and Politics in Indian History during the Thirteenth Century,(2nd ed.) Delhi, 1974, P.241.
11. Amir Khurd, op.cit. p.47.
12. S.A.A.Rizvi, op.cit. p.140.
13. Amir Khurd, op.cit. p.363.
14. K.A.Nizami, ‘Early Indo-Muslim Mystics and their Attitude towards the state’, Islamic Culture, octobar, 1948, p.393.
15. Ibid. p.395.
16.Barani, Tarikh-i- Feroz Shahi, (Sir Syed ed.) p.207.
17. Amir Hasan Sijzi, op.cit. p.99.
18. Ibid. p.215.
19. Jamali, Siyar-ul-Arifin, p.78.
20. Barani, op.cit. p.45, ‘Qiwam-ul-Aqaid’ deals in chapters VIth and VIIth with the devotion of Nobles, Maliks and Sultans to Shaikh, PP.25, 176.
21. Mohammad Jamal Qiwamuddin, Qiwam-ul-Aqaid, pp.233-234.
22. K.A.Nizami, Nizamuddin Auliya, Delhi, 1991, p.103.
23. Ibid. p.181.
       24. Ibid. p.185.
25. K.A.Nizami mentions 50,000 tanka in ‘Life and Times of Nizamuddin Auliya’, p.119.
       26. Mohammad Jamal Qiwamuddin, op.cit. , pp.191-193.
27. Ibid.pp.193-194.
28. Raziuddin Aqeel, ‘Sufi cults, politics and conversion: The Chishtis of the sultanat period’, I.H.R., vol.22, No.1-2, July1995, p.194; S.A.A.Rizwi, A History of Sufism in India,p. 185.
      29. S.A.A.Rizawi, A History of Sufism in India, p.185.
30. Badauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, I, Calcutta, 1868, p.242.
31. S.A.A.Rizawi, op.cit.p.189.
32. Hamid Qalandar, Khairul Mjalis, pp.12, 17 and 22.
33. S.A.A.Rizvi, op.cit. p.189.
34. Ibid.p.187.
35. Ibid.p.77; Raziuddin Aqeel, op.cit.p.194.
36. Raziuddin Aqeel, op.cit.p.194.
37. Ibid.
38. Barani, op.cit.p.207

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